tv Book Discussion on The Mercy of the Sky CSPAN June 27, 2015 9:00am-9:48am EDT
printing of his eight-hour-long filibuster against tax cuts. in "blue collar conservatives," rick santorum argues the republican party must focus on the working class in order to retake the white house. businessman donald trump has written several books. in "time to get tough," he criticizes the obama administration and outlines his vision to restore american prosperity. others who may announce their candidacies for president include vice president joe biden. in "promises to keep," he looks back on his career in politics and explains his guiding principles. more potential presidential candidates with books include ohio governor john kasich. in "stand for something," he calls for a return to what he sees as traditional american values. and wisconsin governor scott walker argues republicans must offer bold solutions to fix the country and have the courage to implement them in "unintimidated." and finally, former virginia
>> thank you, everyone for coming we are happy to have you. to may we iq with holly bailey who is the national correspondent now covering the boston marathon bombing trial. he is also a former white house correspondent for newsweek and her work has appeared in salon, entertainment weekly, texas monthly and obama today and she will be reading from discussing her new book "the mercy of the sky" 10 which came out about a tornado that hithat hit oklahoma into a 2013. the national correspondent for the daily beast into newsweek, newsweek's managing editor 2006-2011 and before that magazine washington bureau chief from 2001 to 2006 and author of
killer capture, the war on terror and the obama presidency. housekeeping know, during the q&a we open up to the audience, there will be a microphone to pass around so if you could wait for the microphone to get you before you start asking questions that would be great. we will start with daniel who would like to say a few words about holly bailey. a warm welcome to daniel. [applause] >> hi. thanks for being here. i have had the honor of working with holly bailey for on or off 12 years mostly on. i am her editor now at yahoo! news where she is of vital part of this exciting news operation we are building. i give applause to yahoo! news.
i have hired holly bailey as an intern at newsweek she says late 2002, she started in 2003. we were staffing up for the war and needed a great researcher and over time she rose and rose and ultimately became is week's white house correspondent. i like to tell the story of how i hired holly bailey purely on the strength of her cover letter. she of course talked-about her passion about journalism and how she grew up reading news we can't always wanted to work for a news magazine but there was one sentence that drew my attention. it was in bold letters and it said and i am not a prima donna. i remember thinking she is tired. we are on c-span so i don't think i should say how that made
you different from all your other hot shot colleagues. the more important reason i hired holly is the reason we are here tonight which is her unique and special qualities as a reporter. is terrific and important book and why we are gathered here tonight. holly was just different. from the bible belt. she talked a little bit. did different perspective on politics and a news, not in terms of ideology. i cannot say that about every
reporter at works with. there was a keen sense of the absurdity. sometimes politicians seem ridiculous or bizarre but she never had a mocking tone in the way she wrote about them. and the quirks of personality revealing securities about politicians that made you understand them. and more interested in human dimension stories, and how public figures and ordinary people dealt with adversity and tragedy and, she has known how
to walk back a fine line in reporting. and all these possibilities come shining for rule in this monster tornado that ripped through oklahoma on may 20th, 2013. ten mitchell in. in mercy of the sky and how unforgiving weather and the fury of mother nature, gave them that sort of strange mixture of resilience and fatalism courage
extraordinary things to survive. so holly, congratulations and let's talk about the book. [applause] >> thanks. >> why this book? how did you come to right "the mercy of the sky" and why did you think it was an important story to tell? >> i had gone to more the day after the may 20th tornado i'm sitting in my office in new york watching it on television and i left oklahoma in 1999 and there have been many tornadoes that
have hit many over the years but i was watching it on television and i was with my editor who worked at yahoo! at the time and i said to her this looks like this horrible 1989 tornado that hit previously and people were gathering and looking at the screen and i was saying this is shocking, literally going to hit the same area. we planned for me to go there and i remember driving down the street down 149th street and the street i had driven so many times before and i certainly at that point did not have in the back of my mind i want to write a book about this some day but we started to hear the story of extraordinary things that had happened that day. a tornado wiped out two schools and we were hearing about teachers that literally had risked their lives to save these kids and so many more stories and so in the back of my mind i wanted to tell more of those stories and at the same time i
was getting e-mails on the west coast from people, why would anyone choose to live in an area like this where you can be killed by a storm like this every spring? that was the genesis of the book and i started thinking about it a few weeks later and a larger way of wanting to talk about the story. >> i want to get to that question of why people state their which has a lot to think about the people in oklahoma. before we do that let's talk a little bit, set the scene, talk about this monster tornado, what is the designation? >> e f 5. >> the highest. >> the highest it can be. tel as the destructive power of the tornado like this. >> to backup, as i mentioned a few minutes ago there was a tornado in 1989, back then, it
is -- measures the strength of tornados and essentially vat tornado was so strong and killed 44 people and at one point had the strongest winds ever recorded on the face of the earth, over 300 miles an hour so they literally revamped the scale as of that storm. 14 years later we have another e f 5 which is the highest on the scale and at one point it was more than a mile wide 200 miles per hour, basically going up the same exact path the 1989 tornado went. in between 1999, and 2013 there were more tornados less strong but also still going at the same path, people wonder why we are getting hit so much and made 20th once again here they are again.
>> there are wonderfulonce again here they are again. >> there are wonderful characters in the book one of the ms. gary england, who is a window into the whole culture of whethermen and the world a flay in oklahoma and tell us about him and a little bit about the role he played. >> gary england new york times magazine profiled in two years ago describing him as the weather got of oklahoma and he really is. he is this figure in oklahoma where he was basically people knew him and credited him with saving their lives. the birth of television was
happening in oklahoma and he saw television as aware of protecting people from the storms. he was the first person to really push to have doppler radar on commercial television station. that did not exist before gary england did it. he was the first forecaster to do that out of a tv station. inventing various different things you now see across the country, the little finger on the television that doesn't interrupt your television show to tell you a severe thunderstorm is coming. everything about modern day whether technologies that you see in coverage today something that happened in oklahoma city largely because of gary england. when i was a kid i wanted to be carrying live for while. in oklahoma you grow up, my mom always, i remember being very young and her always telling me to watch the sky. you appreciated it was beautiful but could turn on you in an
instant. that, sort of knowing that, having that obsession with the weather. >> your mother used to take you to the library when you were a little girl and you read about tornados. >> yes. i read about tornados and i still have my copy. those terrible twister's is what it was called. i had a cloud at was the told me what kind of clouds they were. i was one of those kids. gary england, when i think about the weather is synonymous. you think about the storms, you think about gary england. as you are looking out the window, you will hear gary england in the background on television warning you about what was coming and very calm lee, go to a safe spot, take your tornado precautions' he would say so he was this person just everywhere in every way. >> take us back to may 20th, 2013. there were some things about
this tornado that were different. that people could already tell different before it hit. >> it was an outbreak of whether for three days so people who had been hit by storms several times a day there was a tornado the night before the skirted more and affected by and's house so everybody knewmy and's house so everybody knew 's house so everybody knewun 's house so everybody knewt 's house so everybody knew 's house so everybody knew that monday they woke up joy is anxiety with the next storm going to hit. that is one of the surprising things for me, i knew it on one level, how personal some of the weather man in oklahoma took forms. their lives. gary england really took it
personally. after the 1999 storm that killed 40 people he could not understand how that had happened, that tornado had been on television, they scrambled helicopters to chase it so he was haunted by the fact that so many people were killed lizzie blamed himself in many ways so he went and pull the autopsy reports and found out how people died to inform his own reporting about storms to protect people. so as they were getting ready for may 20th he was up all night worrying about how people died in the storm the night before and he woke up and looked at the radar and there was nothing going on but he went to his front door and opened it and describe it as feeling as though the gulf of mexico was on his doorstep because it was so humid he could feel it in the air that something was coming. i think everybody woke up that morning thinking something was going to happen but what was different about the may 20th storm is it came so much earlier in the middle of the day when kids were still at school and
they had warned about that but i don't think anybody believed it would happen. >> these tornados typically touchdown in relieving? >> yes. most tornados hit around 5:00 or 6:00 or later, when the heat the ground interact with humidity in the air but this one threatening clouds at 1:30 or 2:00 so the local television stations already been on the air for hours ahead of that time just waiting and watching for the storm to come. >> some of your other characters were teachers. tell us about them. >> in the path of the storm were two elementary schools, briarwood elementary, up earlier in the day the national weather service and the local television stations had been warning there was a possibility that some -- the bad weather could hit before school was out so many parents
were checking out their kids and so forth and there were a lot of kids the teachers were if there. getting ready to take shelter where they could, in oklahoma in the hallways. that is something shocking to people outside of oklahoma but most storms don't hit that early in the day. >> tell us what happened to those teachers when the storm hit. one of them was covered under rubble. tell us about that day a little more and what happened. >> the tornado touched ground near newcastle which was this rural area southwest of oklahoma city. basically came up the usual path, people knew it was coming.
the teacher is basically blanket anything, the cover of their heads but once it got to the schools the storm did a strange thing, it became a grinder as they described it where it stopped and seemed to gain strength and to sit there for a little bit and hit firewood and stopped again and firewood by the way was simply demolished but no one died. it stopped again in the plaza half a mile away and the teachers in the school could hear it. it was so loud, they could hear houses and there was this anxiety. many wondering if they would see
their families again. it became quite emotional and terrible, traumatic for them. many stories -- one of the things, a sixth grade teacher in a printer her husband's on the storm, he was to the north of it, he called and said the hallway is not going to protect you, you need to find someplace else, so they ran into this printer closet where they could barely fit, she was holding on to the door and this kid turned to her and set are we going to die? she is a sixth grade teacher and the plight of that. god is bigger than the storm. as it got closer and closer and louder and louder and at one point at the door knob, twisted
her wrist and hold on to lead and was sucked away but they lived. >> let's talk a little bit about the resilience of the people in oklahoma more generally, and kind of coping strategies and get to is this question about something as horrific as this series of tornados why they stay. talk about that a little bit. >> there is a lot of conversation about the resilience after the oklahoma city bombing. where people notice oklahoma was a little different from others because that happened and it was -- people united with each other and they made sure everybody in the community was -- that
strength of getting fruit that time, many people credit the bombings for the strength they have shown for these storms. >> you make the point that it goes even further back. >> that is my theory. some people don't agree with me. oklahoma tornadoes. >> to the dust bowl. >> tornados are not the worst natural disaster to happen to oklahoma. a lot of people going back to the dust bowl, people who stayed through the dust bowl, went to california or elsewhere who stayed and rode it out and took it as a moment of pride that they stood up to mother nature and in some ways that is the attitude about tornados in oklahoma. people don't want to have mother nature get the best of them. even though they had this threat of losing their house the rebuild and they don't want
another city. >> one of the fingers that is hard to understand is these tornados are occurring at a greater pace, there are more and more of them and the lot of people assume maybe that is climate change. what do scientists say about this? do spend a lot of time talking to scientists with the national weather service. what did you learn about tornados? what did you learn about why that happened and why they're happening as much as they're happening now? >> going back to my childhood there were tornados all the time when i was a kid but they were not like they are today. we are talking a few hundred yards wide whereas tornadoes now are a mile wide or more in oklahoma. i asked a lot of tornadoes scientists all of them based in oklahoma because they are there to study the storms, why is this happening and they literally
don't know. a scientist at the university of oklahoma who inspired the movie twister with one of his inventions where they put something in the path of tornadoes hoping the center would be sucked into it he spent his entire life studying tornadoess and trying to understand and he described tornadoes as this last frontier atmosphere ixion's. to me describe tornadoes to me as an iceberg where you only see the final but there's so much more going on in the clouds and they still don't know why certain storms creates the tornado or some don't, and i asked him do you think it is climate change and he said he didn't know. in some ways it would suggest climate change has something to do with why tornadoes are bigger and occurring with more frequency but at the same time he pointed out to meet that a drought which is in happening in oklahoma you would think would sort of curb the committee, that
is a certain thing that happens with climate change but he didn't know. >> how are the people more generally in tornado alley adapted to this situation? i assume they have storm shelters in schools. >> a few. there are more people in oklahoma that have storm shelters at their homes, i was surprised to learn after the 1999 storm that many people after that tornado did have storm shelters i was stunned by that but after this one everybody got a storm shelter, several thousand now. there is a huge debate in oklahoma about the role of storm shelters, limited education funding, no one wants to pay for it, so there was a really nasty battle in the legislature last year about it. obviously the parents of the
kids in favor of having storm shelters at school public schools when they rebuild the elementary schools that were destroyed added a safe room to their schools but there are so many other schools largely don't have shelters. >> extraordinary. how do you explain that? you would think when something like this happens, seven children die in one school there would be an enormous political will to do something about it. >> oklahoma is a conservative state. they talk a lot about money. last year the governor said she supported the concept legislators in other parts of the states that are not prone to tornadoes a while we spending tax dollars on that? it should be a local issue. and we think this is a state issue. there is set huge battle of bureaucracy now. >> reading the book, what comes through over and over is this
ambiguous relationship with tornadoes. there is this sense as you put it the beauty of this weather. you talk about there is almost a narrative art to these stories people almost watch them like entertainment. what is that about? >> i think it goes back to oklahomans are fascinated with the weather. and it used to be when i was a kid, it took a lot to interrupt television for storm but now if there is even a wall cloud, usually the stations go to back-to-back coverage and deploy storm chasers and storm chasers have cameras on their cars and drive really close. i described it in the book as a reality show. in many ways it is because they get these videos not even
including the average people that go out with their own iphone and start shooting at but a station after the fact, many times like cnn or something a lot of amateur video of the may 20th tornado. >> made me think about war and people who cover war, the phenomenon of becoming addicted to the adrenalin of war and i don't know think about the storm chasers, people who go out because they want to see it. is there an element of that? >> yes i think there is, there is definitely an excitement. one of the things that is funny about oklahoma i don't know that any of the national weather service does this but the national weather service in oklahoma when they issue a tornado warning put it on twitter because they know people are increasingly looking more at social media when storms happen and always they pack on this thing that says tornado warning
for x county, don't stand outside and look at it because people do. that is something in oklahoma and even in the book the mayor of more was outside his jewelry store looking at the tornado coming woodson and his daughter who works for an intelligence agency in washington called him and said dad get inside and he made a joke with her, i use spying on me? .. >> your mother's house, your aunt's house.
what's it like reporting a story like this that's so, that is so personal and kind of so visceral for you? what's that like? >> it was, you know, it was moments of that are tough because it is personal. there are parts of this, as you know as my boss -- [laughter] i had a hard time writing some of this stuff because this is, you know, where i grew up. and i, you know, have a strong feeling about these people and care for them them and worry about them. >> yeah. >> and, you know it's funny, every storm season, you know, my mother and i have a routine where, you know, she lives in southwest oklahoma city which is near the path of one of these storms, and every time something blows up, i'm calling her are you okay? are you in the shelter? it happened twice last week. >> it's interesting to me, i don't remember which storm it was, maybe it was this one, you were at a concert in new york? >> yeah. it was a week after the moore tornado. >> yeah. and you called your mom --
>> yeah. >> -- because there'd been another one, right. >> with yeah. i got a text from a guy i'd been dating. he said, you know, there's another tornado on the ground. and i literally pulled up on my app on my phone, because i have a weather app for oklahoma city here in new york and looked and lo and behold, another huge tornado coming. so i called my mom and i couldn't reach her and it was coming towards her house. and finally i reached her. >> but it was a couple of days later, wasn't snit. >> it was 11 days later. >> 11 days. what struck me, okay, you couldn't reach her, that's understandable, the phones weren't working. she didn't call you. and she loves you but it made me think well, are they so used to this, is it so common place that you don't immediately think to call your family to let them know you're okay? >> yeah. they're very blase. and, in fact, the end of that story was sort of funny because i couldn't reach her for quite some time. there was massive flooding. and by the way, that tornado that hit, it was 11 days after
and it was a monster. it was wider than the island of manhattan which is, i can't even imagine seeing something like that come towards you, and a lot of storm chasers were killed including a leading tornado scientist in the world. so finally i reached her the next day and she was just so blase about it, i reached her actually because my ex-boyfriend went and drove by her house to see if it was still standing. he went by and took a picture and then i finally got in touch with her and she was just so whereas say about it. -- blase about it. she said, oh, i just drove down the street, and i saw a trampoline in the street. >> i love this. what'd she say? >> this is why you never buy a trampoline in oklahoma, because you're always going to end up owning someone else's. [laughter] i was like, okay, glad you're alive. >> you described the trampoline as impaled on a what? >> on a tree. last week i saw after one of the storms a picture of a trampoline
in someone's yard. [laughter] so she's right. [laughter] >> yeah. i want to open it up to questions. i just -- this made me think of one thing which is there's some really wonderful writing in this book and some great powerful images. one of them is you talked about you know, how these storms can sometimes in a sort of bizarre almost surreal way spare, you know buildings or, you know, and you have one image of -- it hit a bowling alley right? and what happened? >> yeah. it made a direct hit on a bowling alley. so it was complete rubble. but then you would see inside on one of the lanes all the pins standing there -- >> neatly lined up? >> ready for a strike yeah. >> last question for you which is there are going to be more tornadoes. it's inevitable.
do you think that oklahoma, that moore, what have they done to make this place more physically resilient, and do you think they've done enough, or has politics gotten in the way of it? >> politics actually, have worked very well. the city of moore i mean, one of the things that's really great about them is that -- and sad about them at the same time -- is that they are professionals at rebuilding. and so they clear the rubble away really quickly and after this storm they actually passed a really strong, one of the strongest building codes in the country establishing that houses have to be able to withstand you know, a tornado basically. at least i think it's 150 miles per hour. but it's one of the strongest codes in the country. so they are building back stronger but, you know it's sort of funny. last year when i was there for the first anniversary they're rebuilding the hospital that took a direct hit. and the mayor at the time joked
you know, this is so great this is happening, but we know we're going to get hit again, this is moore, oklahoma. they just know it's coming, another storm is coming. >> questions? >> hello. i was wondering you talked a little bit about being in touch with your mom like, after storms, and i was wondering what she thinks of book in general. and, like, what your family thinks about you being a tornado expert now. >> my family, my mom's really excited. she called me -- i stent her an early -- sent her an early copy of the book, and she called me last week beyond thrilled, which is really great. i wrote -- the first chapter of the book is really all about my family and, you know, my aunt's house got hit and crazy things happened at her house, you know?
the storm the night before the moore tornado the tornado picked up her farm animals her cows, and took them across to another pasture a half mile away, and they were alive. i mean it's crazy. and so is, and the storm deposited a cat on her doorstep which is now her pet. but she talked to me, i mean, my aunt told me about watching that tornado come to her house and sort of the crazy things that she was thinking. and she, you know, she was running to the basement, and they already had the important papers but she kept fixating on this bottle of versace perfume that she and my mom had found at some like, antiquing thing which they had gone on a few weeks earlier, and she was obsessed about this perfume. she couldn't even explain why. and she was rushing around trying to find it this like, 19 t 0s -- 1990s perfume. and she found it and took it in the basement with her as she saw
this tornado coming and she said the tornado looked like boiling black water coming towards her house. it damaged her house ripped the roof off and i was like what was it about this perfume? she said, i don't know, i guess they could just sprinkle a few drop cans on my dead body, and i'd be okay. so that kind of explains my family's strange relationship with the weather. [laughter] >> i have a great follow-up question because you had said before that, you know, you really care and love these people that you're writing about, and i know because you are empathetic i know that you were also worried about their reaction to the book. what were you worried about, and what kind of response have you gotten so far? >> one of the things i really worried about, whenever i went back to interview people in moore, they were so gracious even though they had been through horrific, horrific things.
and still, they still struggle. i mean, one of the teachers has to put on headphones whenever the tornado sirens test or whenever the wind blows quite frankly, she told me because she still is not over that day. when i interviewed a lot of people, there was a lot of emotion, and i was just worried, i didn't want to traumatize them anymore, you know? i didn't want them to have to sort of relive this horrible day in their life. but, you know i've had -- it's been pretty positive. one of the people told me, you know, it was easy for me to talk to you about it, it helped me. and so that was really, really nice to hear. and everybody that i've heard from in moore they're really happy and excited that they have been written about which makes me happy. so -- >> more about this cultural, culture of resilience in moore
because i think i know it's been hit like more than ten times in a certain period of years that it's like tornado alley and people expect it and people sort of have this pride in sticking around. but i wonder about anyone who leaves and if you interviewed anyone who made the tough choice to move away or how that's viewed in the community if people sort of say i've lost my house three times now, i just can't do it again. like, are there people who, you know want to stay but can't? >> actually, i only know after the 2013 storm there was only one family that i know of that actually left. everybody else rebuilt including people who lost their kids. like, there's one horrible story of a baby being sucked out of a mother's arms, and she and her husband chose to stay in moore because they had other kids, and they didn't want to disturb their stability. but there were some families that chose to go elsewhere. in fact, you know, and then i actually interviewed one woman who rebuilt her house right across the street from plaza towers and she told me after
the storm i was never going to go back to moore and then the next week when the tornado the second tornado came, they actually happened to be right in the path of that tornado too and they just -- she just was like i don't i think anywhere you go you're in danger, especially in oklahoma. and then she sort of made it as, you know well if i were to go to california, i'm in danger of earthquakes, and if i go to the east coast, i'm going to have a hurricane hit me. that's part of what the feeling is, something bad can happen to you anywhere and they really cast it as, you know, a couple of days a year that are really bad, but the rest of the year is great. >> you spoke a little bit about the weather forecaster and how he was a huge star in the area but i'm curious if there were any other quirky areas of, like a micro-economy that was just based on rebuilding tornadoes or being warned about them or even,
i don't know, tourism or something. >> yeah, there is tourism. there is tourists that go out and chase tornadoes. that was happening after the movie "twister" that was really big and still is pretty big. that's one of the real big concerns, is that the roads are so clogged right now with people that are chasing the storms after the el reno tornado which is the may 31st tornado that hit a few days after the moore one, somebody put -- there's an app that storm chasers use which kind of looks like pac-man in a way where you can look and see where other storm chasers are and they literally pulled up to this map and it was like crawling. it was almost like tetris or something. there were so many storm chasers in that storm is. and so there is this sort of, you know, people that chase storms, and they go out there and shoot video and then they try to sell it to other people or put it on their web sites. there's that happening. and then, you know, after one of
the things also in terms of just rebuilding moore has become pretty savvy since they've been hit so often about keeping people from coming in and gouging people in terms of replacing their cars or replacing their homes. they've gotten, like a pretty good handle on that. and one of the things moore's actually done is that they have this existing contract that they passed like, decades ago to have people just come in and clean up because they know another storm's going to be hit so they don't have someone coming in and saying i'm going to charge you this outrageous, x amount of money to clean up this area. they just have it all ready to go for the next storm. >> question in the back. >> learning about tornadoes or living with them, and did you also look at the earthquake situation in oklahoma now, the way in the last 15 years it's, i
mean, i think it's gone from -- >> it's less than 15 years. >> yes. and it's just so dramatic. and i i lived in oklahoma for a while, and, you know, i don't understand, i guess, the idea that people stay there because i mean, the weather it doesn't seem like a place to stay. >> yeah. [laughter] >> so, and then i think the sort of denial can of what the oil industry -- denial of what the oil industry has done and how the can conservative political, i mean, there are well hawaii people there but -- wealthy people there but they have not taken care of native people. i mean it just seems fraught with lots of problems, i would think. how did you see the tornado and the earthquake, or did you study the earthquake issue? >> i wrote a story last year about the earthquakes for yahoo! actually because, you know, you not only have tornadoes but
then you have these earthquakes happening, and now they've released a report blaming it on oil and gas and the drilling there. and so but a year ago there was still some mystery. they didn't really have it for sure if it was that. so there was a lot of joking about, you know, end times in oklahoma because people are, you know have so much faith and you know, they were like, you know, the next thing is going to be the plague of locust, and then that actually did happen like a few months later. it's also it gets back to people also kind of joke about this stuff in a way as a coping mechanism in a way of, you know -- yeah. i mean so -- [inaudible conversations] >> yeah. and that's part of debate over storm shelters, because the schools in moore, for example, i mean, they have such limited money, and they want to put it
towards education, and they don't, you know, they don't necessarily want to spend that money to build shelters, and so that's why they've been asking the state for help many that but, crazily, hasn't happened. >> i want to ask one last question, and then we'll wrap it up. you talk about resilience. we've also talked a lot about trauma. so my question is do a lot of people who go through who experience these tornadoes and all of the destruction and the death and the violence, is there a ptsd can issue? are there -- ptsd issue? are there people who get psychological help, get counseling? is that a big deal? is that something that they resist? >> no. after this tornado particularly, there was a lot of counseling. even people at the national weather service had counselors come in was they, you know -- because they, you know, it's their job to keep a cool head when these things happen, but people forget that the national
weather service is right there in tornado alley, and some of these people have their family there. and so it's so much stress. and so they actually had to bring in counselors. a lot of, there was a lot of counselors that descended on oklahoma to help the teachers and the can kids and throughout the school year, the follow-up school year, the can kids did things like art therapy. amy simpson talked to me a lot about how they used art therapy as some ways to help kids know the difference between good clouds and bad clouds that following year. but, you know, one of the things i always remember is going back there for they had a ceremony to mark the one-year anniversary of the storms and she at that time, you know, she told me that she had still barely had a day where she hadn't cried about the storm, and she was still having a really hard time. and she said, you know but the kids are so resilient, and the kids are resilient, but the adults are suffering. and i sitting at that ceremony and wat